To be safe, every pilot needs more frequent and realistic training to cope with engine-out emergencies. This process of “crash-proofing” assures every pilot has the skills and is psychologically ready, to safely return to earth from any phase of every flight. This seems axiomatic but is amazingly rare. In training, once the initial fear of flight diminishes, we assume the power is going to always be there (or we would be continually terrified). Reawakening a little concern and suspicion is essential for safety; “Where would I land right now?” (Engine failure is the third most common cause of fatal accidents)
The easiest return is from altitude, where time and energy are available. But as you can see from the accident above, many pilots fail this test even when great fields are readily available. The first problem is psychological – overcoming the startle response and lock-up when the “simulation becomes real.” Fear inoculation and actual emergency practice are necessary to handle any emergency. Since you cannot “surprise yourself,” a good CFI with some “shock and awe” training is required to build implicit learning that will be available to the pilot under serious stress – the difference between target shooting and real combat. Getting time in a real glider (or even a rating) is highly recommended for power pilots. Practicing field selection and glide control embeds “implicit learning” – subconscious/automatic – that operates even during emergency situations.
To become “crash-proof”, first find and memorize your power-off glide attitude and trim for control. Get comfortable with this glide “look and feel” and be able to achieve it immediately (from Vy climb you have only about three seconds to get there). Once there, most pilots fail to trim and squander precious moments chasing a misbehaving aircraft. From 1000 feet you have only 2 minutes and you will be on the ground…hopefully in a big field. This is one chance (no replay) and failure is not an option.
In most piston planes putting the wing cord level with the horizon while looking out at the wing, will give you the best glide within 5 knots. Then practice flying the plane from an abeam position in the pattern to the runway in a glide. Manage the flare and landing power off and remember to aim toward the middle of the field initially. In every emergency we want to allow a margin for “partial pilot incapacitation” from a shaky, nervous performance. Your plane is not going to roll far on a rough surface and we absolutely do not want to miss the field. Once that landing spot is assured on a stabilized final, optimize the approach with flaps and/or a slip to pick the best touchdown point (only when stabilized on a final). Again practice in a glider getting precise glide control is very valuable.
Once you have this “abeam point to touchdown” portion of the process worked out, work on the “high-key to abeam” glide management. When an engine fails at altitude and a field is selected, go directly to the selected landing field and dissipate altitude directly over the intended landing point. This not only assures success with the glide, but it also allows the pilot ample opportunity to observe potential hazards on the surface and optimize a touchdown point. To survive the off-field landing, you need to dissipate your speed over the greatest distance for survivability.
Once at normal pattern altitude, enter your normal abeam position as practiced. Those large, 2-mile downwind and four-mile final legs to lose altitude, are the primary reason I see for off-field failure. The familiar/reliable downwind to landing procedure from a pre-practiced abeam position is essential for a pilot hyped up on adrenaline. All those other important items have to be handled parenthetically (seat belts tight, door cracked, emergency call and shut down) because if you miss the field entirely (the usual case) all that other prep is largely wasted.
Once all these basics are in place, it is essential to practice assiduously to build solid implicit (subconscious) patterning so you can perform an emergency landing accurately and comfortably from anywhere in the pattern. This skill is a huge confidence-builder and all these abilities transfer to normal patterns and make any pilot much sharper for the days when emergencies are “canceled for today.”
Good resources are the emergency training video from AOPA: Engine Failure from Trouble to Touchdown. This is an excellent program worth watching several times. A classic non-nonsense book is “How To Crash an Airplane (and Survive!)“ by crash investigator Mick Wilson. Kai Gertsen’s classic “Off Airport Landings” is FREE in the SAFE library (he has 169 successful off-airport landings). Actual time spent in a glider is also very valuable for all kinds of reasons. Practicing glides all the way from altitude to landing “for real” focuses the mind and embeds airspeed and pattern control. Remember though, glide ratio and flight attitude will be dramatically different in a draggy piston plane. Fly safe out there, and be ready to land safely from any part of every flight!
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